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The core strength of Analytical Answers is our flexibility: our willingness and ability to work along side our clients, wherever you are, whatever your need. We offer Anywhere (TM) services to help you get the answers you need, quickly.
The descriptions below provide an introduction to some of our most utilized instruments and techniques. Don’t see what you need here? We offer many more services. Contact us using the form and we will reply with a custom solution.

Scanning Auger Microanalysis (SAM)
 
 
Scanning Auger Microanalysis (SAM) is an analysis technique that determines elemental composition and some chemistry of surfaces and interfaces. The technique has a sampling depth of 2-3 nm and is appropriate for films as thin as a few monolayers with a lateral resolution of 50 nm. It is limited to conductive samples but can also shows the spatial distribution of elements on a surface. The technique is also useful for depth profiling and will show elemental depth distributions from 1 to 2000 nm when used in conjunction with ion-milling.

 

Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy (VPSEM)
 
 
Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy is a technique used to produce highresolution images with a high depth of field. VPSEM differs from traditional SEM in that the instrument chamber is operated at higher pressures (~10 Pa to 3,000 Pa) which allows for imaging and analysis of insulating samples without the need to apply a conductive coating.This is convenient for when it is undesirable to coat a sample or the sample is too large for the coating systems.With VPSEM, we can examine a sample's topography, structure, and its elemental composition under magnifications of ~10X to ~20,000X.

 

Focused Ion Beam (FIB)
 
 
The Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique is analogous to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in that it scans a focused probe beam, in this case ions rather than electrons, across the surface of interest. This beam can be used to generate high-resolution images of the sample or to mill into the sample to expose the internal structure. This combination of high-resolution imaging to locate features of interest followed by precise site-specific milling provides an invaluable tool for sample preparation and analysis, providing rapid cross-sectional analysis of features that would be difficult or impossible to otherwise prepare.

 

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)
 
 
Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis is a surface analysis technique that determines elemental composition and some chemistry of surfaces and interfaces. ESCA can determine the nature of the chemical bonds on the surface and is valuable for differentiating an organic coating from the base organic material. The technique is similar to Auger in the information it provides but the sample types and areas examined are very different.

 

Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
 
Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy is a technique that qualitatively and quantitatively identifies elemental composition of samples analyzed in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It has a relatively deep penetration compared to ESCA and Auger.

 

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
 
 
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique used to analyze both organic and inorganic materials for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. It can examine macro or micro samples and is complementary to EDS, ESCA and Auger analysis.

 

Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging (FTIRI)
 
 
Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging is a spectroscopic technique used to analyze sample down to approximately 5 microns in size. It is used to analyze both organic and inorganic materials for both qualitative and quantitative analysis and is complementary to EDS, ESCA and Auger analysis.

 

Thermal Analysis
 
 
Thermal Analysis are a series of techniques that measure changes in a sample with changing temperature. The techniques measure changes in weight (TGA) or heat flow (DSC) that are characteristic of materials and formulated products.

 

Visible Light Microscopy (OM/PLM)
 
 
The key to any of the techniques Analytical Answers uses is the ability to “see” the sample. Visible light microscopy provides that ability.

 

X-Ray Microscopy (XM)
 
 
Through high-resolution X-ray microscopy, we are able to non-destructively examine the internal structure of samples in real-time, at magnifications up to 1000X. While the internal mechanisms of these samples are usually not visible under other means, XM offers us a tool to watch them in operation.

 

Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS)
 
 
Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) is a complimentary technique to Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for performing x-ray analysis of materials to determine their elemental composition.
Elemental analysis by EDS suffers from several shortcomings, including high
background levels and relatively poor energy resolution, which result in poorer
detection limits and the inability to separate elements with peaks at similar
energy.