Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, also known as X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), provides information on the atomic composition and chemical bonding of a sample on the surface (top few nanometers). ESCA can detect all elements except for hydrogen and helium, and the detection limit is about 0.1 atomic percent.

We can use ESCA on both conductive and insulating samples, which mean this technique has a wide application for both organic and inorganic samples.